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Convection

Contents

Key Stage 3

Meaning

Convection is a process where thermal energy is transferred in a fluid due to particles moving from hotter regions to cooler regions.

About Convection

Convection happens in fluids (liquids or gases) because particles can move past one another.
When a fluid is heated particles move more quickly and spread further apart. This makes the fluid less dense. The less dense fluid rises. After the fluid has moved away from the heater it cools down, the particles move more slowly coming closer together. This makes the fluid more dense so it sinks back towards the heater.

Examples

A Convection Current caused by a heat source. A Convection Current caused by a heat sink.

Examples in the Particle Model

A Convection Current in the particle model caused by a heat source. A Convection Current in the particle model caused by a heat sink.

References

AQA

Convection, page 15, GCSE Physics; The Revision Guide, CGP, AQA
Convection, page 35, GCSE Combined Science Trilogy; Physics, CGP, AQA
Convection, page 36, GCSE Physics; The Complete 9-1 Course for AQA, CGP, AQA
Convection, pages 12, 26-7, 30-1, GCSE Physics; Student Book, Collins, AQA

Edexcel

Convection, page 38, GCSE Physics, Pearson Edexcel

OCR

Convection, pages 84, 85, Gateway GCSE Physics; The Revision Guide, CGP, OCR