Key Stage 3
Convection is a process where thermal energy is transferred in a fluid due to particles moving from hotter regions to cooler regions.
- Convection happens in fluids (liquids or gases) because particles can move past one another.
- When a fluid is heated particles move more quickly and spread further apart. This makes the fluid less dense. The less dense fluid rises. After the fluid has moved away from the heater it cools down, the particles move more slowly coming closer together. This makes the fluid more dense so it sinks back towards the heater.
Examples in the Particle Model
- Convection, page 15, GCSE Physics; The Revision Guide, CGP, AQA
- Convection, page 35, GCSE Combined Science Trilogy; Physics, CGP, AQA
- Convection, page 36, GCSE Physics; The Complete 9-1 Course for AQA, CGP, AQA
- Convection, pages 12, 26-7, 30-1, GCSE Physics; Student Book, Collins, AQA
- Convection, page 38, GCSE Physics, Pearson Edexcel
- Convection, pages 84, 85, Gateway GCSE Physics; The Revision Guide, CGP, OCR