# Electron

## Key Stage 3

### Meaning

This diagram shows the electrons orbiting an atom.

An electron is a small particle found orbiting the centre of an atom.

### About Electrons

Electrons negatively charged.
In conductors electrons can pass easily from one atom to the next.
When electrons move it is called an electrical current.

To see how electrons are arranged around the nucleus of atoms or to see how electrons move around a circuit click on the pictures below to play a PHET simulation.

## Key Stage 4

### Meaning

The Electron is a negatively charged particle found orbit the nucleus of an atom in electron shells.

### About Electrons

Electrons have a relative atomic charge of -1 and a relative atomic mass of 1/1840.
The electrons and their shells are responsible for the chemistry of an atom.
When atoms bond to form molecules some atoms can share their electrons forming a Covalent Bond, some transfer an electron from one atom to another forming an Ionic Bond while others allow electrons to pass freely between many atoms forming a Metallic Bond.

## Key Stage 5

### Meaning

An electron (e) is a type of lepton with a mass of 9.11x10-31kg and charge of -1.60x10-19 Coulombs.

### About Electrons

The electron is denoted with a lower case e.
Electrons are fundamental particles as they are not made of any smaller particles.
Electrons are affected by the:
 Lepton Charge/e Strangeness Baryon Number Lepton Number \(Q=-1\) \(S=0\) \(B=0\) \(L=+1\) \(Q=0\) \(S=0\) \(B=0\) \(L=+1\) \(Q=+1\) \(S=0\) \(B=0\) \(L=-1\) \(Q=0\) \(S=0\) \(B=0\) \(L=-1\)

### References

#### AQA

Electron, pages 12-3, 22, 24-5, 106, GCSE Chemistry; Student Book, Collins, AQA
Electron; delocalisation, pages 37, 56, 59, 66-7, 82-3, GCSE Chemistry; Student Book, Collins, AQA
Electron; sharing, pages 38-9, 58, GCSE Chemistry; Student Book, Collins, AQA
Electron; shell, pages 22-3, 30-1, GCSE Chemistry; Student Book, Collins, AQA
Electron; transfer, pages 37-9, 58, 60-1, 164-5, GCSE Chemistry; Student Book, Collins, AQA
Electrons, page 5, GCSE Chemistry; Third Edition, Oxford University Press, AQA
Electrons, page 88, GCSE Physics, Hodder, AQA
Electrons, pages 110, 111, GCSE Combined Science Trilogy; Physics, CGP, AQA
Electrons, pages 117-18, 338, GCSE Combined Science Trilogy 1, Hodder, AQA
Electrons, pages 12, 19, 20, 23, 28-32, GCSE Chemistry; The Revision Guide, CGP, AQA
Electrons, pages 122-124, GCSE Physics; The Complete 9-1 Course for AQA, CGP, AQA
Electrons, pages 22, 23, 25, 42-45 72-76, 80-85, GCSE Chemistry, CGP, AQA
Electrons, pages 22, 23, 25, 42-45, 70-74, 78-83, GCSE Combined Science Trilogy; Chemistry, CGP, AQA
Electrons, pages 2-3, GCSE Chemistry, Hodder, AQA
Electrons, pages 35, 43-45, GCSE Physics; The Revision Guide, CGP, AQA
Electrons, pages 50-55, GCSE Physics; Third Edition, Oxford University Press, AQA
Electrons, pages 96, 104, 105, 113, 114, 116, 197, GCSE Combined Science; The Revision Guide, CGP, AQA
Electrons; beta particles, page 115, GCSE Combined Science Trilogy; Physics, CGP, AQA
Electrons; beta particles, page 127, GCSE Physics; The Complete 9-1 Course for AQA, CGP, AQA
Electrons; charge, page 14, GCSE Chemistry; Third Edition, Oxford University Press, AQA
Electrons; chemical cells, pages 120-121, GCSE Chemistry; Third Edition, Oxford University Press, AQA
Electrons; delocalised, page 45, GCSE Chemistry, Hodder, AQA
Electrons; delocalised, pages 49-51, 53, GCSE Chemistry; Third Edition, Oxford University Press, AQA
Electrons; discovery of, page 341, GCSE Combined Science Trilogy 1, Hodder, AQA
Electrons; discovery of, page 91, GCSE Physics, Hodder, AQA
Electrons; discovery, page 108, GCSE Combined Science Trilogy; Physics, CGP, AQA
Electrons; discovery, page 120, GCSE Physics; The Complete 9-1 Course for AQA, CGP, AQA
Electrons; discovery, pages 12-13, GCSE Chemistry; Third Edition, Oxford University Press, AQA
Electrons; electrolysis, pages 104-105, GCSE Chemistry; Third Edition, Oxford University Press, AQA
Electrons; in oxidation and reduction reactions, page 103, GCSE Chemistry, Hodder, AQA
Electrons; in oxidation and reduction reactions, pages 204-5, GCSE Combined Science Trilogy 1, Hodder, AQA
Electrons; ions, pages 16, 38-43, GCSE Chemistry; Third Edition, Oxford University Press, AQA
Electrons; metallic bonding, page 53, GCSE Chemistry; Third Edition, Oxford University Press, AQA
Electrons; movement of, page 61, GCSE Combined Science Trilogy; Physics, CGP, AQA
Electrons; movement of, pages 63, 99, 100, GCSE Physics; The Complete 9-1 Course for AQA, CGP, AQA
Electrons; periodicity, pages 19, 24-25, 30-31, GCSE Chemistry; Third Edition, Oxford University Press, AQA
Electrons; shells, pages 12, 19, 20, GCSE Chemistry; The Revision Guide, CGP, AQA
Electrons; shells, pages 22, 43-45, GCSE Chemistry, CGP, AQA
Electrons; shells, pages 22, 43-45, GCSE Combined Science Trilogy; Chemistry, CGP, AQA
Electrons; shells, pages 96, 104, 105, 197, GCSE Combined Science; The Revision Guide, CGP, AQA
Electrons; shielding, pages 30-31, GCSE Chemistry; Third Edition, Oxford University Press, AQA

#### Edexcel

Electrons, page 18, GCSE Chemistry, Pearson, Edexcel
Electrons, pages 151, 152, GCSE Physics, CGP, Edexcel
Electrons, pages 16, 19, GCSE Chemistry; The Revision Guide, CGP, Edexcel
Electrons, pages 162, 354, 380, GCSE Combined Science, Pearson Edexcel
Electrons, pages 32-36, 42, 43, GCSE Chemistry, CGP, Edexcel
Electrons, pages 49, 50, GCSE Physics; The Revision Guide, CGP, Edexcel
Electrons, pages 79, 82, 172, 173, GCSE Combined Science; The Revision Guide, CGP, Edexcel
Electrons, pages 90, 140, GCSE Physics, Pearson Edexcel
Electrons; annihilation, pages 157, 170, GCSE Physics, CGP, Edexcel
Electrons; beta particles, pages 156, 157, 159, GCSE Physics, CGP, Edexcel
Electrons; in atoms, pages 151, 152, GCSE Physics, CGP, Edexcel
Electrons; movement between energy levels, pages 128, 153, 154, GCSE Physics, CGP, Edexcel

#### OCR

Electrons, pages 14, 17, Gateway GCSE Chemistry; The Revision Guide, CGP, OCR
Electrons, pages 18, 21, 94, 96-97, 105, 170, 178-179, Gateway GCSE Physics, Oxford, OCR
Electrons, pages 27, 29, Gateway GCSE Chemistry, Oxford, OCR
Electrons, pages 86-86, 88-90, 92, 150, 175, 195, 196, Gateway GCSE Combined Science; The Revision Guide, CGP, OCR
Electrons; covalent bonds, page 60, Gateway GCSE Chemistry, Oxford, OCR
Electrons; energy levels, pages 84, 88, 196, Gateway GCSE Combined Science; The Revision Guide, CGP, OCR
Electrons; free elections, pages 94, 96, Gateway GCSE Combined Science; The Revision Guide, CGP, OCR
Electrons; ionic bonds, page 58, Gateway GCSE Chemistry, Oxford, OCR
Electrons; metallic bonds, pages 66-67, Gateway GCSE Chemistry, Oxford, OCR
Electrons; periodic table, pages 70-71, Gateway GCSE Chemistry, Oxford, OCR
Electrons; redox reactions, page 111, Gateway GCSE Chemistry, Oxford, OCR